An argument with a teacher could be about anything – homework not being given in on time, the way you have behaved in class, or something another student or teacher has said about you. Teachers are there to help you to learn, and should want the best for you. Sometimes though, teachers may not understand what you are going through or why you have behaved in a certain way, because they only see one side of you at school.
If you have other things going on in your life that are making school difficult for whatever reason, you should try to explain this to your teacher so that they can help you through it rather than them getting angry at you – it could look to them like you aren’t trying or are misbehaving.
Although most teachers are good people who want to help you, there are some teachers who might not be very nice to you. The way they could be being unkind are things like shouting at you in front of the class and saying things that make you feel stupid or embarrassed, not listening to you when you try to tell them your problems, or making you feel unhappy in other ways. If this happens, then it is best to talk to another teacher, maybe your head of year, form tutor, or even head teacher depending on how badly you were treated. They can then hopefully find out what is going on and sort out the problems with you and your teacher.